Avodah Mailing List

Volume 35: Number 40

Mon, 27 Mar 2017

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Subjects Discussed In This Issue:
Message: 1
From: Professor L. Levine
Date: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 17:38:18 +0000
[Avodah] Fish - Raw Fish on Passover

Please see the CRC article at


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Message: 2
From: Ben Waxman
Date: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 07:25:10 +0200
Re: [Avodah] Pesach - Lecithin does not render chocolate

1) Has anyone on this list EVER strained milk and found chameitz (or 
anything else)? Have you even spoken to someone who did?
2) The prohibition of being m'vateil an issur applies to the super 
corporations that run the milk industry?

On 3/23/2017 5:36 AM, Zev Sero via Avodah wrote:
 > The reason to buy milk (or any other liquid) before pesach, and 
preferably to strain it before pesach as well, is so that if there *is* 
any chamets in there one can rely on bittul lach belach.   I am unsure 
whether that would apply to chocolate, which was once liquid but is now 
 > Kitniyos isn't the issue, chamets is.  Without a hechsher to ensure 
that they're not *deliberately* adding something that has chamets in it,

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Message: 3
From: Rich, Joel
Date: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 20:26:56 +0000
[Avodah] anoos redux

It seems to me the halachic definition of anoos ("circumstances beyond
one's control?") has been enlarged in my lifetime, perhaps over the last
number of generations (since the enlightenment?). At one extreme are
determinists (it's all out of our control) and at the other are "will
vincet omnia" (it's all under our control). Once you get past the Torah's
case, how is the line drawn (and why there?)
Joel Rich

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Message: 4
From: saul newman
Date: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 14:07:01 -0700
[Avodah] super stores


Just saying, one can't make a halachic argument for any particular economic
system based on what people need. Every system's proponents believe they're
backing the one that best serve's those needs.

----  guess it  depends whether it's better for the kahal to  have a
super-gvir  vs many mini ones....
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Message: 5
From: saul newman
Date: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 07:38:44 -0700
[Avodah] color issues


is there room to say that MO doesn't hold by these chumradige psakim? or
just that the people just don't ask
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Message: 6
From: Cantor Wolberg
Date: Sat, 25 Mar 2017 20:18:53 -0400
[Avodah] Vayikra

?Vayikra el Moshe? And HE called to Moses.

According to the Rabbis, Moses had many names (cf. Megilla 13; Lev, Rabba 1:3).
He was called Yered, ?because Manna descended (yarad) through his intervention.?
He was known as Avigdor, ?for he fenced in (gadar) the breaches of Israel.?  He was
nicknamed Avisucco, ?because he was like a protecting tabernacle (succah) for his

Yet when God calls to him, He uses only the name by which Pharaoh?s daughter 
termed him, Moshe, a name which recalled Moses?s lowly estate, oppressed, 
thrown into the Nile and dragged from its waters. It was exactly because Moses 
still knew how to answer to that name that he was fit to be ruler over his people; but
more important, even in his prosperity, he never forgot from where he came.

Similarly, the Jewish people were redeemed from Egypt because they did not alter 
their names. They retained the traditions and way of life of their fathers. 

There is no respect for others without humility in one's self.
Henri Frederic Amiel,   (Swiss moral philosopher, poet, and critic)

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Message: 7
From: Prof. Levine
Date: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 09:18:22 -0400
Re: [Avodah] [Areivim] ISRAEL: Transgender Husband Says He's

I am moving this discussion to Avodah.

It would be helpful if you would identify this poseik and elaborate 
on his reasons.

And for the record,  one pesak does not a halacha make,  as far as I 
am concerned.


At 06:03 AM 3/26/2017, you wrote:
>You presume incorrectly.  In the eyes of that beit din, she's still
>considered male.  But according to the only psak by a posek who actually
>gives his reasons, she's female, since she apparently had sex-change
>surgery.  So while that beit din required her to pretend to be male and
>give a get, it doesn't mean she actually was.
>On 3/26/2017 12:44 PM, Prof. Levine wrote:
> > At 04:16 AM 3/26/2017, Lisa Liel wrote:
> >> Old news. She gave the get.
> >
> > A "she" cannot give a get,  according to the Torah. Only a "he" can.
> > So I have to presume that in the eyes of halacha this person is still
> > considered a man.
> >
> > YL
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Message: 8
From: Lisa Liel
Date: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 21:36:32 +0300
Re: [Avodah] Transgender Husband Says He's Now A Woman And

On 3/26/2017 2:38 PM, Micha Berger via Areivim wrote:
> On Fri, Mar 24, 2017 at 02:41:02PM +0000, Professor L. Levine via Areivim wrote:
> : Please see
> : http://tinyurl.com/m5m6q8m

> : It does not get much more bizarre as a couple that arrived at a Beth
> : Din in Israel were quarreling over a 'get'. It appears one of the woman
> : is a transgender, formerly the husband in the family who is now living
> : as a woman.

> We have discussed a similar case on Avodah, as the Tzitz Eliezer deals with
> the hypothetical case of a transsexual who refused to give a gett.

To be more accurate, the Tzitz Eliezer discusses whether a woman whose 
husband became a woman would require a get.  There was no case given, 
and no refusal.  Just the hypothetical of whether she'd require one.

> Here there is really nothing to talk about, as haakhah revolves around some
> physical marker of sex or another, not what gender the person thinks
> they ought to be.

According to the YNet article, she did have surgery, which is precisely 
what the Tzitz Eliezer was addressing in that teshuva.


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Message: 9
From: Lisa Liel
Date: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 22:28:20 +0300
Re: [Avodah] [Areivim] ISRAEL: Transgender Husband Says He's

There are two relevant teshuvot by the Tzitz Eliezer. The first one is
in his lengthy teshuva on transplants, Volume X, Part 25, Chapter 26.
In section 6, after having finished the meat of the teshuva, he turns
to the question of "other significant/organic alterations of the body,
such as a person who changes from male to female, or vice versa."
I recommend you reading it in the original, rather than relying on
whatever summary I might provide.

However, in his survey of the halakhic literature on the question, he
brings a source that discusses whether Eliyahu's wife would have been
an agunah after he went up to Shamayim. The conclusion in that source
was that she would not, because while an eshet ish is forbidden, an
eshet mal'ach is not. The Tzitz Eliezer comments on this that it would
seem the same thing would apply in this case, because an eshet isha is
not either. Note that this seems to imply that he assumes that a person
who now appears to be male (having originally been female) or vice versa,
*is* what they appear to be. Otherwise, his comment makes no sense.

The second teshuva is in Volume XI, Part 78. It's a case of a child
who was born looking essentially morphologically female (that is, the
child appeared to have a vulva and vagina), but tested XY-male in its
chromosomes, and had testicular tissue in one of the labia. The question
was whether that tissue could be removed. So there were issues of (a)
what is the sex of the child halakhically, and (b) is there an issue of
sirus in removing the testicular tissue.

The Tzitz Eliezer writes: "The external sexual organs of the newborn in
question, as you have described, appear as those of a female, and it has
no external indications of male organs. Only the special examinations
[gene testing] showed that male cells were present. And therefore,
in my opinion, even if we were to leave it as it is, it would have the
status of a female, since the external organs which can be seen by the
naked eye are the determinant in Jewish law."

In the book Torah and Reason, by Rabbi Dr. Chaim Zimmerman, starting on
page 230, he talks about how the universe is divided into three domains of
size. "One, the world of the macrocosmos, the immense range and vastness
of the universe, the galaxies and the numbulae which involve infinite
distances of billions of billions of l ight years to reach their orbits,
so to speak. Two, the microcosmos, the orld of smallness, which a small
fraction of a billionth of a billionth of an inch is a great universe in
comparison to its infinite smallness. And three: the man-sized world,
where man perceives through his senses." He subsequently continues,
"The Halacha and its human practices, is given to man where man can do
all the Taryag Mitzvot with his 'bare hands.' His units of action are
the units of the man-sized world."

I first read this book decades ago, when I was in the process of becoming
observant, and it impressed me a lot. And this point stuck with me:
halakha doesn't care about the microscopic. If it isn't visible to the
naked eye, it isn't relevant. DNA isn't relevant. Chromosomes aren't
relevant. They can add information and perhaps tilt the balance of an
argument, but that's all. We don't ask whether paramecia are considered
dagim or chayot when it comes to determining their kashrut. Kashrut
doesn't apply to them, because they are invisible to the naked eye.

I do a lot of genealogy work when I have the chance, and I'm constantly
running across people who think that a DNA test that says they have X%
Jewish background means they're Jewish. I have to keep explaining to
them that we don't care about DNA. To the best of my knowledge, we
wouldn't even accept a DNA paternity test as proof of halakhic parentage.

So when the Tzitz Eliezer writes that "the external organs which can be
seen by the naked eye are the determinant in Jewish law", the first word
that comes to mind is "pshitta". But apparently it isn't so pashut,
because I keep hearing people raising the issue of chromosomes on this

While it wasn't mentioned here, another common argument I've heard
is that people who have undergone sex change surgery can't procreate,
and that this is evidence that they are not the sex they claim to be.
Leaving aside the obvious refutation of infertile people, I find that
argument particularly problematic, because it implies that if medical
science reaches the point where they *can* procreate, the arguer will
withdraw his objections, which is patently not the case.

There is a game called Whack-a-Mole, where you use a hammer to hit the
heads of mechanical moles, and each time you do, other moles pop out of
other holes. There's a variation of this game that I sometimes see being
used when it comes to this topic. I have seen people address the first
of the two teshuvot, and claim that it can't be used, because it's only
theoretical, and isn't being applied to a specific case. And at the
same time, I have seen people address the second of the two teshuvot,
and claim that it can't be used, because it only refers to a newborn
whose sex is being determined at that time. However, the two teshuvot
together make it fairly clear that both arguments are spurious.

Lastly, I'd like to address what Prof. Levine wrote: "one pesak does
not a halacha make". This is certainly true. However, Rav Eliezer
Yehuda Waldenberg z'l, author of the Tzitz Eliezer, was a *major* posek.
Considered at least on par with Rav Moshe Feinstein z'l in Israel, and an
expert in medical halakhot. While every single other psak or claim (it's
sometimes difficult to know which something should be categorized as)
that I have read, stating that sex change surgery has no halakhic effect
on a person's sex, gives no reason for the determination other than,
"Of course it doesn't", or "Because eww..." I don't think that's valid
halakhic reasoning (l'oniyut daati), and none of the people in question
are, to the best of my understanding, of the stature of R' Waldenberg.


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Message: 10
From: Micha Berger
Date: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 19:40:33 -0400
Re: [Avodah] [Areivim] ISRAEL: Transgender Husband Says He's

I recommend seeing the discussion at 

The Leiv Aryeh disagrees with the Tzitz Eliezer (and R Yosef Palaji, whom
ZE cites)

As does the Besamim Rosh, but I'm not sure I would rely on the Besmamim
Rosh. (Which claims to be a long-lost set of teshuvos by the Rosh, but
it believed by most rabbanim and the academic community to be a forgery.)

Similarly RYSE, who doesn't discuss the case of gett, but does give a pesaq
that presumes the gender does not chanafe. Etc...

It is clear that the ZE is in the minority.

Tir'u baTov!

Micha Berger             You are where your thoughts are.
mi...@aishdas.org                - Ramban, Igeres haQodesh, Ch. 5
Fax: (270) 514-1507

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Message: 11
From: Micha Berger
Date: Mon, 27 Mar 2017 13:21:57 -0400
Re: [Avodah] [Areivim] ISRAEL: Transgender Husband Says He's

I should point out that in addition to disagreeing with the Tzitz Eliezer
(ZE) by invoking chromosomes -- which I agree should be outside halakhah --
internal organs and historical organs at time of birth would ordinarily
be within the purview of halachic discussion. Machloqes is tenable,
and indeed, exists.

There is less history of discussion of how to assign halachic gender to
a post-op transsexual than of discussion of surgery on an androgenus
or metumtum and the halachic impact.

And along those lines, R' Alfred Cohen has an article in the RJJ
Journal, Fall 1999
His focus appears to be morw about permissibility of adjusting an
androgenus or metumtum to a single gender, but along the way there
are indications about the halakhah we're discussing -- the resulting
gender post-op.

Notably, RMShternbuch appears to leave the androgynus in their safeiq
status, the ZE (REW) was already discussed,
the Ibn Ezra (as read by RYSE) would consider future relations to be
mishkav zakhar despite being assigned femal gender (again, gender does
not change with surgery), whereas
RYSElyashiv would consider all bi'ah to be shelo kedarka -- which sounds
much like the ZE in theory, in that the issur is that and not mishkav
zakha -- an issur that presumes that being assigned female sex surgically
does change halachic gender to female. But in discussing a different din
than the ZE's case of gittin, one in which he still ends up machmir.

Now for the most relevant postion of RAC's article:

   Doctors usually want to "fix" the hermaphrodite or one who has
   ambiguous sexual organs by turning the child into a "girl" through
   removal of the male organs. (They also usually construct a vagina-like
   opening and administer hormones or hormone-suppressants, as needed.)
   Consequently, one of the first issues that has to be dealt with is
   the biblical prohibition of "petzua daka" (Devarim 23:2), marriage
   with whom is forbidden by the Torah. [35]

   Furthermore, as noted, the androgynous is considered by Jewish law as
   possibly a male and possibly a female, and therefore obligated to
   observe all the commandments incumbent upon a man. By turning the
   person into a female only, the doctors are taking away from this person
   the ability and the privilege of performing certain mitzvot. Again,
   this is a halachic problem.

   If the doctors turned this child into a female (through surgery and
   hormone therapy) but the child is actually a male, [36] and this "female"
   grows up and gets married to a man-would this constitute a homosexual
   relationship, which is strictly censured by the Torah? [37]

   To avoid these multiple problems, Rav Sternbuch writes [38] that a child
   with ambiguous sexual indicia should always be "turned" into a male
   rather than a female. The only exception [39] would be in the case of a
   child which is clearly a female (verifiable by her having all the
   external female organs), although possessing in addition certain
   ambiguous traits. [40]

   One of the leading poskim in the world today is the Israeli sage, Rav
   Eliezer Waldenberg, author of Tzitz Eliezer, who is often consulted
   particularly on medical problems. A doctor was once confronted with a
   case of a child born with apparent intersex characteristics, and he
   turned to Rav Waldenberg for guidance. In addition to addressing the
   specific problem, Rav Waldenberg availed himself of this opportunity to
   expand upon his view concerning similar situations and how they should
   be dealt with.

   The child in question was born with external organs which seemed to be
   female; however, there also seemed to be an organ resembling testes.
   Further complicating the situation was that a chromosomal test of the
   infant indicated it was a male. After surgery, it was found to have no
   internal sexual organs. The doctor wrote that it was medically easier
   to make the child into a girl, but asked two questions: is it
   permissible to make a child whose genetic identity is male, into a
   female? Further more, is it forbidden to remove the "testes"?

   In his responsum, Rav Waldenberg lays down the principle that in these
   matters, the determining factor is the appearance of the external
   organs: the key is the visual perception. Consequently, he rules that
   since all the external organs of this child are of a girl, it is a
   girl. [41] The only problem is removal of the testes, which is forbidden
   due to the prohibition of castration. However, in this case he rules,
   since the child is a girl, one can remove the testes, since that
   operation is not what would make her sterile. Furthermore, even if a
   child were an androgynous, it would still be permissible to remove the
   testes, without violating the prohibition of sterilization - since in
   any case this child is not capable of having a child. This conclusion
   is based on the Minchat Chinuch, [42] who rules that the prohibition
   against sterilizing (sirus) cannot apply to a person who cannot have
   children anyway. [43]

   Having given an answer to the specific problem raised by the doctor,
   Rav Waldenberg then proceeds to expand upon the topic. Considering that
   this issue is on the cutting edge of modern medical knowledge and
   technique, his responsum is a highly pertinent foundation for
   addressing the halachic issues which are now arising.

   In the view of Rav Waldenberg, even if a true androgynous were born,
   having both sets of external organs (a circumstance which is very
   rare), it is permissible to remove some of these excess organs. This
   ruling is predicated on the halachic and medical conclusion that the
   child would not be able in any case to have children. The next question
   then is which set of organs to remove or modify? According to Rav
   Waldenberg, it is preferable to make this child a boy, for two reasons:

   (A) Since there are those who opine that an androgynous can have
   children, and
   (B) Since we are not certain whether the child is actually a boy or a
   girl, by removing the female organs we are making a child into a boy,
   who will be able to perform more mitzvot. Consequently, that is the
   desirable choice.

   At this point, Rav Waldenberg adds a most controversial opinion: if it
   were advisable (medically) to turn this hermaphrodite into a female,
   that option is halachically permissible. By removing the male organs,
   the child will be able to function as a female. According to him, the
   sexual identity of the child is not established until after the
   procedure. [44] He is also of the opinion that it is best to perform this
   procedure while the child is still quite young, before it is obligated
   to perform mitzvot. [45] There is a further caveat added by Rav
   Waldenberg: before any organs are removed, it is necessary to determine
   if the procedure would indeed result in the child's being truly a
   female (presumably this could be determined by means of sophisticated
   medical scans and / or genetic analytical tests). [46]

   A third opinion on this matter is expressed by Rav Eliashiv, [47] whose
   view is that if this ambiguous child were transformed into a "girl" by
   medical science, it would be forbidden for any man to have sexual
   relations with her. Since her "vagina" is merely an opening constructed
   by doctors, there are no sexual relations but rather "wasting of the
   man's seed", which is an act forbidden by the Torah (Vayikra 18:22). [48]
   Furthermore, in his commentary on his verse, Ibn Ezra cites the opinion
   of Rabbenu Chananel, which posits that intercourse between a male and
   another male who has an artificial vagina is considered sodomy.

   In summary, we are left with three halachic opinion: [49]
   (A) Make the child into a boy.
   (B) It is preferable to make the child a boy, but it is permissible to
   make it a girl.
   (C) It is forbidden to make it a girl.

   Sex Change

   The option of "changing" a person's sex which the halacha addresses is
   certainly and obviously not merely fulfilling someone's whim. According
   to Nishmat Avraham, there is no question that this is not permitted for
   a normal male/female. [50]

   Even in cases where doctors felt it was necessary to alter or "adjust"
   the sexual identity of a child born with ambiguous genitals, or for
   some other traumatic reason, it seems that the procedure is not as
   successful as it may superficially appear to be. A case was recently
   reported in the news media [51] of a boy who, due to a dreadful accident
   when he was eight months old, was "turned into a girl" by his concerned
   doctors. In spite of surgery, hormone administration, and all the
   cultural trappings of a girl-dolls, dresses, etc. - the child's
   transition was not as seamless as it appeared. "...Despite his
   feminized body and upbringing, John in fact rejected his new gender. He
   tore of the dresses, dreamed of becoming a mechanic and even tried to
   urinate standing up - despite his reworked anatomy." "I thought I was a
   freak or something," he told the study's authors. After finally finding
   out the truth about his status, he proceeded to have his breasts
   removed and his genitals rebuilt. At 25, he married a woman and adopted

   Researchers say that this case, though unusual, has important
   implications for the issue of influencing sexuality. "You can't
   magically decide somebody is either male or female." [52]

   Some unusual problems do occasionally arise if a tumtum or androgynous
   was "fixed" as an infant and later in life feels the need for a change
   in sexual identification. Rav Eliezer Waldenberg spends a considerable
   amount of time examining various aspects of this dilemma: [53] If, after
   marriage, a man or woman undergoes a sex change operation, does the
   other spouse have to give (or receive) a get? Although he does not
   specifically say so, it is apparent from his writing that Rav
   Waldenberg assumes that any person undergoing such a change must have
   been originally a tumtum/androgynous, who was operated on to create a
   specific sexual identity. [54] Rav Waldenberg even speculates what
   blessing this person should recite in the daily prayers - those for a
   man or a woman? [55] Perhaps, he suggests, the blessing should be
   reworded, "Blessed are You... who changed me into a..."

   Is Surgery Required?

   How about the option of doing nothing - what would be the halachic
   status of a tumtum/androgynous?

   The optimal response when a tumtum or androgynous is born might appear
   to be to seek medical advice and employ whatever surgical techniques
   are available to obviate the problem or at least to seek to determine
   the true sexual identity of the child.

   Surprisingly, the Rishonim do not agree as to the correct halachic
   approach: Rashba [56] opined that the child should be operated on if
   possible, and, if found to be masculine, should be circumcised. [57]

   35. The author of Nishmat Avraham, Even HaEzer 44, reports that Rav.
   S.Z. Auerbach wrote to him that the prohibition of petzua daka refers
   only to the issur of such a person getting married, but that there is
   no special negative commandment about making someone into a petzua
   daka. This should not be confused with the negative commandment of
   36. This possibility is not as bizarre as it sounds. In 1998, The New
   York Times featured an article about an individual to whom this was
   done. For decades, the child was brought up as a female, but "it never
   felt right." Finally, he had the operations reversed and assumed his
   true identity as a man-even getting married to a woman! See further on
   this at the end of this article.
   37. In Hama'or Kislev-Tevet 5733, Rabbi Amsel suggests that even
   administering female hormones to a male may be forbidden, under the
   prohibition of a man's wearing women's garments.
   38. Assia I, p. 144.
   39. Nishmat Avraham, ibid, reports that Rav Auerbach agreed with him on
   this point.
   40. For example, sometimes what appears to be a penis is in reality an
   enlarged clitoris.
   41. Tzitz Eliezer, XI, no. 78
   42. 291, note 4. See also Chatam Sofer, Even HaEzer 20 and 17.
   43. However, see the Chazon Ish, Even HaEzer 13, s.v. "vehaRashba". In
   Shabbat 111a, the Gemara states that the prohibition of sirus
   (castration, sterilization) does not apply to an elderly person. Even
   though the Gemara ultimately rejects this view, the Minchat Chinuch
   apparently feels that the concept has validity, even if it did not
   apply to the particular situation under discussion in the Talmud. See
   also, Sefer Hasidim 620 and Assia I, p. 143.
   44. He maintains that this is also the opinion of the Meiri in Yevamot;
   in my view, it may also be the solution to a cryptic statement by the
   Rogachover Rebbe in his Tzafnat Paneach (Yibum, chap. 10, Kelaim, 10,
   Shut 60:144). The Rogachover writes that the sexual identity of a
   tumtum who is operated on becomes established only at that point, and
   not retroactively. However, this is disputed by the opinion expressed
   in the Tosafot Yevamot 83, s.v. "Beria...", which holds that the
   surgery merely reveals and elucidates that which was really there
   before, but hidden from our view.
   45. See the question of R. Neuwirth, cited in Nishmat Avraham, Even
   HaEzer p. 137.
   46. Rav Waldenberg does speculate whether we should conclude that
   medical science has perfected treatment of the situation. For an
   understanding of why it might make a difference which rationale is
   employed, and when it is proper to fall back on the argument that there
   has been a change in our physical nature, see the article by Rabbi
   Dovid Cohen on "Shinuy Hatevah" in the Journal of Halacha and
   Contemporary Society, Vol 31.
   47. In Shevilei Harefuah, 5739, pamphlet 2, 5739.
   48. See Even HaEzer 20: "Whoever has sexual relations with a woman via
   one of her limbs, is to be punished by the Court (because of "wasting
   49. Avnei Nezer, Yoreh Deah 322, describes a child born with a penis
   and testicles; however, there is no opening in the penis, but rather at
   the point where the penis and testicles meet. He rules that the child
   is certainly a male and requires a brit. The Beit Yosef Even HaEzer 5
   quotes the Rosh that such a child is certainly capable of begetting
   children and that he requires milah.
   50. Nishmat Avraham, Even HaEzer 44, note 3. Interestingly, he cites no
   proof for his ruling. However, see Tzitz Eliezer XXV, chapter 26, no.
   51. Newsweek, March 24, 1997, p. 66.
   52. Ibid.
   53. Tzitz Eliezer, section 10, 25:26:6. He cites the Terumat HaDeshen
   102, Rashi to Yevamot 49a, Minchat Chinuch 203, Birkei Yosef Even
   HaEzer 17, and others. It is noteworthy that this question is also
   discussed in Teshuvot Besamim Rosh, ibid, but not quoted by Rav
   Waldenberg. Possibly this is due to the problematic authorship of
   Besamim Rosh which, although attributed to the Rosh, who lived in the
   13-14 century, could not have been written by him. Or at least, some of
   the responsa were not written by the Rosh as a case in point, the one
   at issue here mentions an opinion of the Noda Biyehuda, who lived in
   the eighteenth century!
   54. In passing, Rav Waldenberg touches on a different halachic
   question: he is of the opinion that if the female organs were removed
   from an individual and transplanted into another female (who was
   lacking them), who thereafter conceived and bore a child, that child is
   definitely the offspring of the birth mother, not the organ donor.
   55. It is interesting that he does not relate this to the milah problem
   which a convert has concerning the blessing "...who has not made me a
   56. Yevamot 70a, "efshar lo achshav likora, uvar minhol hu." See Sefer
   Habrit, pp. 94-95, for various explanations of these divergent
   57. Yevamot, ibid. R. Akiva Eiger writes in his notes to Yoreh Deah
   262:3 that "there is no obligation to operate on and [subsequently] to
   circumcise a tumtum, and this is clear..."

Tir'u baTov!

Micha Berger             "Fortunate indeed, is the man who takes
mi...@aishdas.org        exactly the right measure of himself,  and
http://www.aishdas.org   holds a just balance between what he can
Fax: (270) 514-1507      acquire and what he can use." - Peter Latham


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