Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 66:10

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י: שְׁטַר -עִסְקָא לֹא מַהֲנֵי לְהַתִּיר אֶלָּא אִם הָאֱמֶת כֵּן הוּא, שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת הַמָּעוֹת לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ אֵיזֶה עֵסֶק. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל אֶת הַמָּעוֹת לְצֹרֶךְ עֵסֶק אֶלָּא לִפְרֹעַ אֵיזֶה חוֹב וְכַדּוֹמֶה, אָז לֹא מַהֲנֵי שְׁטַר- עִסְקָא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא שֶׁקֶר. אֲבָל יְכוֹלִין לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּאֹפֶן זֶה, כְּגוֹן רְאוּבֵן שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְמָעוֹת, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ אֵיזֶה סְחוֹרָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, יָכוֹל לְמָכְרָהּ לְשִׁמְעוֹן אֲפִלּוּ בְּזוֹל גָּדוֹל, ובִתְנַאי שֶׁהַבְּרֵרָה בְּיַד רְאוּבֵן, שֶׁאִם לֹא יִמְסְרֶנָּהּ לִידֵי שִׁמְעוֹן עַד יוֹם פְּלוֹנִי, יִתֵּן לוֹ בַעֲדָה כָּךְ וְכָךְ, – שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לְשִׁמְעוֹן רֶוַח כָּרָאוּי, וְשִׁמְעוֹן יִתֵּן לִרְאוּבֵן אֶת הַמָּעוֹת וְיַעֲשׂוּ קִנְיָן סוּדָר לְקִיּוּם הַמִּקָח, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁשִּׁמְעוֹן הַלּוֹקֵחַ יִתֵּן קְצָת מִבִּגְדוֹ לִרְאוּבֵן שֶׁיִּתְפֹּס בּוֹ, וּבָזֶה הוּא קוֹנֶה אֶת הַסְּחוֹרָה שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן, וַאֲפִלּוּ, שֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי עֵדִים, וְהַסְּחוֹרָה הִיא בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן הַקּוֹנֶה

A business agreement does not successfully make [the collection of the profit by the investor] permissible unless it truly is that way — that he took the money to do with it some business. But if one did not put the money to a business need, rather to repay a loan or the like, then the business agreement does not apply, because it’s false.

However, it can be done in this way: Such as if Re’uvein needs money and he has some merchandise even if it’s in a different place, he can sell [the merchandise]  to Shim’on even at a very low price, on the condition that Reuven can choose that if he does not give (the merchandise) to Shim’on, up to a certain day, he will give him instead a certain amount  — so that Reuven will have a reasonable profit). Shim’on then gives Re’uvein the money, and they make a “qinyan sudor” [a formal acceptance of taking ownership, using a scarf or other small item] to seal the agreement. Shimeon, the recipient, gives a part of his garment [serving as the sudar] to Reuven that he should hold it, and by this he acquires Reuven’s merchandise, even if there are no witnesses. Then the merchandise is the responsibility of Shim’on, the buyer.

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