Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 67:3

ג: צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִדֹּוֹר שׁוּם דָּבָר. וַאֲפִלּו לִצְדָקָה אֵין טוֹב לִדֹּוֹר, אֶלָּא אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ בְּיָדוֹ מַה שֶּׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן, יִתֵּן מִיָּד. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ, יַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ וְיִתֵּן בְּלֹא נֵדֶר. וְאִם פּוֹסְקִים צְדָקָה, וְצָרִיךְ לִפְסוֹק עִמָּהֶם, יֹאמַר בְּפֵרוּשׁ, שֶׁהוּא פּוֹסֵק בְּלִי נֵדֶר. וְכֵן כְּשֶׁמַּזְכִּירִין נְשָׁמוֹת, שֶׁנּוֹדְרִין לִצְדָקָה, יֵשׁ לוֹמַר בְּלִי נֵדֶר)וְעַיֵן לְעֵיל סִימָן ט., אִם הוּא בְּעֵת צָרָה, מֻתָּר לוֹ לִנְדּוֹר

One must be careful not to make a neder about anything [i.e. any object]. Even for tzedaqah it is not good to make a neder. Rather, if he has something in his possession which he wishes to give, he should give it immediately. And if he doesn’t, he should wait until he does have, and give it without a neder. If they [some group] are pledging tzedaqah and he must pledge with them, he should say explicitly that he is pledging without a neder. Similarly when they remember souls [i.e. say Yizkor] that they vow money to tzedaqah, it is appropriate to say “without a neder“.

Also see ahead, se’if 9, that if he is in a time of trouble, he is permitted to make a neder.


“Speak little, and do much.”

The sole exception appears to be when someone needs merit now, and therefore wants to make a commitment in a time of need. And even there Rabbi Ganzfried says “permitted”, not “laudable”.

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 67:2

ב: וְכֵן יִתְרַחֵק מִן הַשְּׁבוּעָה. אֲבָל אִם עָבַר וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל אֵיזֶה דָּבָר, לֹא יִשְׁאַל עָלָיו אֶלָּא יַעֲמוֹד בִּשְׁבוּעָתוֹ, אַף- עַל- פִּי שֶׁהוּא מִצְטַעֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, נִשְׁבַּע לְהָרַע וְלֹא יָמִיר. וּכְתִיב אַחֲרָיו, עוֹשֵֹה אֵלֶּה לֹא יִמּוֹט לְעוֹלָם. וְאֵין נִשְׁאֲלִין עַל הַשְּׁבוּעָה אֶלָא בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחַק – ר”ג ר”ל

Similarly [just as one avoid a neder, a vow about an object], so too one should distance oneself from a shevu’ah [an oath about an action]. However, if he erred and took an oath about something, he should not ask [a sage to find a problem annulling it] but  should uphold his shevu’ah — even if it causes pain/hardship. As it says, “he that swears to his own ill, and does not annul” (Tehillim 15:4) and after [the rest of the list of good deeds being praised it continues], “whomever does these will not be removed forever” (v. 5). We do not ask [raising a fault annulling the oath] except in times of duress.


This se’if is pretty straightforward once you know the difference between a neder and a shevu’ah.

A neder applies to an object. I prohibit use of an object, I sanctify it.

A shevu’ah applies to the person; it is an oath to perform or renounce an action.

The gemara that makes this distinction, at the beginning of tractate Nedarim, is the origin of the famous distinction (chaqira) that Brisk uses in many situations — gavra (person) vs. cheftzah (object).

I wrote about this topic, how a neder prohibits something “al nafsho” in a way that a shevu’ah does not and thus how they serve very different roles in one’s avodas Hashem. If you’re interested see here.

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 67:1

סִימָן סז – הִלְכוֹת נְדָרִים וּשְׁבוּעוֹת

67: Laws of Vows and Oaths

א: אַל תְּהִי רָגִיל בִּנְדָרִים. כָּל הַנּוֹדֵר, כְּאִלּוּ בּוֹנֶה בָּמָה בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר הַבָּמוֹת. וְהַמְקַיְמוֹ, כְּאִלּוּ הִקְרִיב עָלֶיהָ קָרְבָּן, שֶׁחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם שְׁחוּטֵי חוּץ, כִּי טוֹב יוֹתֵר שֶׁיִּשְׁאַל עַל נִדְרוֹ וְיַתִּירוּ לוֹ. וַהֲנֵּי מִלֵּי בִּשְׁאָר נְדָרִים. אֲבָל נִדְרֵי הֶקְדֵּשׁ, מִצְוָה לְקַיְמָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר נְדָרַי לַה’ אֲשַׁלֵּם. וְלֹא יִשְׁאַל עָלָיו אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק – ר”ג, ר”ל

Do not get in the habit of [making] vows [about objects; see next sei'f]. Whomever makes a vow, it is as though he built an altar on a high place at a time when altars on high place are prohibited [i.e. ever since the building of the first beis hamiqdash]. And whomever fulfills it, it is as though he offered on it a qorban, where he would be culpable because it was slaughtered outside [the beis hamiqdash]. For it is better that he ask [a beis din] about his vow and they annul it for him.

This is for the rest of vows, but vows making something sacred, it is a mitzvah to fulfill them, as it says “I will pay my vows to Hashem”, and he should only ask about them in a difficult situation.


This comparison is interesting. A qorban offered outside the beis hamiqdash is still called a qorban — which literally means “a closeness-causing thing”. However, it is prohibited because Judaism seeks holiness through structure, and thus a religious experience that violates halakhah is still punishable.

Many rishonim discuss this point when exploring the reason for the deaths of two of Aharon’s sons, Nadav and Avihu. They offered a “foreign fire” before Hashem, and died for it. But how? By Hashem’s fire taking them as an offering; and  their death is described as “though My holy ones, I shall be sanctified”. Both sides of the dichotomy between the value of a religious experience and the destructiveness of not following the halachic regimen are acknowledged.

The comparison therefore affirms the religious content of the vow. It is trying to get religion by making an extrahalachic practice or prohibition binding on oneself that is problematic.

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 66:12

יב: יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּתַן לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּהֵמָה לְגַדְּלָהּ וְשֶׁיְחַלְּקוּ אַחַר כָּךְ בָּרֶוַח, דִּינוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ מָעוֹת בְּעִסְקָא – עיין ביורה דעה סימן קע”ז

A Jew who gave his friend an animal to raise so that they can split the profit [over the current value of the young animal], the law is the same as if he gave him money for business.

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 66:11

יא: וְכֵן רְאוּבֵן שֶׁהָיָה חַיָּב לְשִׁמְעוֹן מָעוֹת, וּבַהַגִּיעַ זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן אֵין לוֹ מָעוֹת לִרְאוּבֵן, וְהִתְפַּשֵּׁרוּ שֶׁשִּׁמְעוֹן יַמְתִּין לוֹ אֵיזֶה זְמַן, בָּזֶה גַּם כֵּן אֵין תַּקָּנָה בִּשְׁטַר- עִסְקָא, אֶלָּא שֶׁרְאוּבֵן יִמְכֹּר לְשִׁמְעוֹן אֵיזֶה סְחוֹרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בָּאֹפֶן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, וְשִׁמְעוֹן יַחְזִיר לוֹ אֶת שְּׁטַר הַחוֹב שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ עָלָיו מִכְּבָר, וּרְאוּבֵן יִתֵּן לוֹ שְׁטָר עַל הַסְּחוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר קָנָה מֵאִתּוֹ בָּאֹפֶן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל

Similarly, if Re’uvein owes Shim’on money, but when the payment date arrives Re’uvein has no money so they makes an agreement that Shim’on wait for him some time, this also is not fixed [i.e. made permissible] by a business agreement. Rather, Re’uvein should sell to Shim’on some merchandise that he has using the method described above, Shim’on should return to him the IOU which he already had, and Re’uvein gives him a note for the merchandise which he bought from him, using the method described above. [Thereby terminating the old, defaulted, loan, and starting a business agreement.

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 66:10

י: שְׁטַר -עִסְקָא לֹא מַהֲנֵי לְהַתִּיר אֶלָּא אִם הָאֱמֶת כֵּן הוּא, שֶׁהוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת הַמָּעוֹת לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ אֵיזֶה עֵסֶק. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל אֶת הַמָּעוֹת לְצֹרֶךְ עֵסֶק אֶלָּא לִפְרֹעַ אֵיזֶה חוֹב וְכַדּוֹמֶה, אָז לֹא מַהֲנֵי שְׁטַר- עִסְקָא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא שֶׁקֶר. אֲבָל יְכוֹלִין לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּאֹפֶן זֶה, כְּגוֹן רְאוּבֵן שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְמָעוֹת, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ אֵיזֶה סְחוֹרָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר, יָכוֹל לְמָכְרָהּ לְשִׁמְעוֹן אֲפִלּוּ בְּזוֹל גָּדוֹל, ובִתְנַאי שֶׁהַבְּרֵרָה בְּיַד רְאוּבֵן, שֶׁאִם לֹא יִמְסְרֶנָּהּ לִידֵי שִׁמְעוֹן עַד יוֹם פְּלוֹנִי, יִתֵּן לוֹ בַעֲדָה כָּךְ וְכָךְ, – שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לְשִׁמְעוֹן רֶוַח כָּרָאוּי, וְשִׁמְעוֹן יִתֵּן לִרְאוּבֵן אֶת הַמָּעוֹת וְיַעֲשׂוּ קִנְיָן סוּדָר לְקִיּוּם הַמִּקָח, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁשִּׁמְעוֹן הַלּוֹקֵחַ יִתֵּן קְצָת מִבִּגְדוֹ לִרְאוּבֵן שֶׁיִּתְפֹּס בּוֹ, וּבָזֶה הוּא קוֹנֶה אֶת הַסְּחוֹרָה שֶׁל רְאוּבֵן, וַאֲפִלּוּ, שֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי עֵדִים, וְהַסְּחוֹרָה הִיא בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן הַקּוֹנֶה

A business agreement does not successfully make [the collection of the profit by the investor] permissible unless it truly is that way — that he took the money to do with it some business. But if one did not put the money to a business need, rather to repay a loan or the like, then the business agreement does not apply, because it’s false.

However, it can be done in this way: Such as if Re’uvein needs money and he has some merchandise even if it’s in a different place, he can sell [the merchandise]  to Shim’on even at a very low price, on the condition that Reuven can choose that if he does not give (the merchandise) to Shim’on, up to a certain day, he will give him instead a certain amount  — so that Reuven will have a reasonable profit). Shim’on then gives Re’uvein the money, and they make a “qinyan sudor” [a formal acceptance of taking ownership, using a scarf or other small item] to seal the agreement. Shimeon, the recipient, gives a part of his garment [serving as the sudar] to Reuven that he should hold it, and by this he acquires Reuven’s merchandise, even if there are no witnesses. Then the merchandise is the responsibility of Shim’on, the buyer.

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 66:9

ט: אִם הַנּוֹתֵן רוֹצֶה שֶׁהַמְקַבֵּל יִתֵן לוֹ שְׁטַר-חוֹב פָּשׁוּט וְאַמִּיץ, כְּחָק- הַמְּדִינָה, בִּכְדֵי שֶׁאִם הַמְקַבֵּל יְסָרֵב מִלִּפְרוֹעַ אוֹ יָמוּת, יְהֵא לוֹ נָקֵל לִגְבּוֹת מְעוֹתָיו עַל יְדֵי עֶרְכָּאוֹת, אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה הֵם מַתְנִים שֶׁמָּעוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵן בְּתוֹרַת עִסְקָא, לֹא מַהֲנֵי, וַאֲפִלּוּ הַשְּׁטָר אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא עַל הַקֶּרֶן לְבָד, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַנּוֹתֵן יָכוֹל לִגְבּוֹת כָּל הַמָּעוֹת בִּשְׁטַר- חוֹב שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אִם יִהְיֶה הֶפְסֵד בָּרוּר, אָסוּר. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמְקַבֵּל מַאֲמִין לְהַנּוֹתֵן וְהוּא אָדָם חָסִיד, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא מַהֲנֵי. וַאֲפִלּו אִם הַמְקַבֵּל נוֹתֵן לְהַנּוֹתֵן גַּם שְׁטַר -עִסְקָא, שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁנּכְתְּבוּ בַּשְּׁטַר- חוֹב הֵן בְּתוֹרַת עִסְקָא, גַּם כֵּן לֹא מַהֲנֵי, דְּאִכָּא לְמֵיחָשׁ שֶׁמָּא הַנּוֹתֵן אוֹ יוֹרְשָׁיו יַעֲלִימוּ אַחַר כָּךְ אֶת שְּׁטַר- הָעִסְקָא וְיִגְבּוּ בִּשְׁטַר- חוֹב. וְאֵין הֶתֵּר לָזֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁיַּשְׁלִישׁוּ אֶת שְּׁטַר- הָעִסְקָא בְּיַד שָׁלִישׁ, אוֹ שֶׁהַנּוֹתֵן יַחְתֹּם אֶת עַצְמוֹ עַל שְּׁטַר- הָעִסְקָא וִיהֵא מֻנָּח בְּיַד הַמְקַבֵּל, אוֹ שֶׁיִּכְתְּבוּ עַל שְּׁטַר-הַ חוֹב, שֶׁהוּא עַל פִּי אֹפֶן הַמְבֹאָר בִּשְׁטַר- עִסְקָא, אוֹ לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת יְיַחֲדוּ עֵדִים שֶׁשְּׁטַר-הַ חוֹב הוּא בְּתוֹרַת עִסְקָא. וּבְכָל אֳפַנִים אֵלּוּ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם נִכְלַל בִּשְׁטַר-הַ חוֹב הַקּרֶן עִם הָרֶוַח, שַׁפִּיר דָּמֵי – סימן קס”ז קע”ז ובחכמת אדם

If the investor wants the recipient to give him a simple debt contract [IOU] that is binding by civil law so that if the recipient refuses to pay or dies, it will be easier for him to collect his money by means of the [secular] courts [- he may]. If, however,  they agreed verbally that the money comes under the laws of a [halachically permissible] business agreement, it is not valid. Even if the contract is only on the principal, since the investor can collect all the money using the IOU that he holds even if the investment has clearly lost, it is forbidden. Even if the investor is trusted by the recipient and he is a pious man, in any event it is not valid. Even if the recipient also gives to the investor a [halachically valid] business agreement, in which is written that the money that is mentioned in the promissory note is under the laws of a business agreement, that also is not valid, because there is reason to suspect that the investor or his heirs might afterward hide the business agreement and collect on the IOU.

There is no way to do this permissibly unless [either]:

  1. they pass on the business agreement to a third party [who would produce it only if the investment loses money and the investor tries to collect the full amount];  or
  2. the investor will himself sign on the business agreement and it remains under the control of the recipient; or
  3. they will write in the IOU that it is according to the terms described in the business agreement; or,
  4. at the very least, the witnesses will be told that the promissory note is subject to a business agreement.

With all these (different) methods (described above), even if there is included in the IOU, the principal and the profit, this is allowed.


A civil promissory note would frame the deal as a loan unless there was some way to insure that the investor is forced to accept his share of any loss.

This again ties back to the notion that control is associated with who absorbs the risk, and therefore if the funder has no risk, the money is entirely in the control of the recipient, and it’s a loan which converts any profit into interest.

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 66:8

ח: אִם מַקְדִּים מָעוֹת עַל סְחוֹרָה, יִכְתְּבוּ שְׁטָר הֶתֵּר עִסְקָא בְּעִנְיָן זֶה:
מוֹדֶה אֲנִי חָתוּם מַטָּה, שֶׁקִּבַּלְתִּי מֵאֵת ר’ רְאוּבֵן וַויְינְשְׁטָאק מֵאוּנְגְוַאר סַךְ מֵאָה זְהוּבִים – אעס”וו לְהִתְעַסֵּק בְּמָעוֹת אֵלּוּ, – בְּמַאשִׁין [בַּמְכוֹנָה] שֶׁאֲנִי מַחְזִיק בִּכְפַר זאהאן עַד רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן, הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ לְטוֹבָה, וְהָרֶוַח שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה לְעֵרֶךְ מָעוֹת אֵלּוּ, לְאַחַר נִכְיוֹן כָּל הַהוֹצָאוֹת, יִהְיֶה מֶחֱצָה שֶׁלִּי וּמֶחֱצָה לְר’ רְאוּבֵן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, וְכֵן חַס וְשָׁלוֹם הַהֶפְסֵד יִהְיֶה חֵלֶק כְּחֵלֶק. וּמִיָּד בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן, הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ לְטוֹבָה, אֲנִי מְחֻיָּב לְהַחֲזִיר לְר’ רְאוּבֵן הַנִּזְכָּרלְעֵיל אֶת הַקֶּרֶן עִם חֵלֶקה הָרֶוַח שֶׁלּוֹ. וְלֹא אֱהֵא נֶאֱמָן לוֹמַר הִפְסַדְתִּי אֶלָּא בְּבֵרוּר, עַל פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים כְּשֵׁרִים, וְעַל הָרֶוַח לֹא אֱהֵא נֶאֱמָן כִּי אִם בִּשְׁבוּעָה. אַךְ זֹאת הֻתְנָה בֵינֵינוּ שֶׁאִם אֶרְצֶה בְּרֹאשׁ-חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ לְטוֹבָה לִתֵּן לְר’ רְאוּבֵן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל בְּעַד הַקּרֶן וְגַם בְּעַד חֵלֶק הָרֶוַח שֶׁלּוֹ סַךְ חָמֵשׁ מִדּוֹת ספִּירְט, אֲזַי אֵין לוֹ עָלַי עוֹד שׁוּם תְּבִיעָה יוֹתֵר. וְכָל דִּין תּוֹרַת נֶאֱמָנוּת לְבַעַל הַשְּׁטָר, אַף לְאַחַר זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן. וְקִבַּלְתִּי שְׂכַר עֲמָלִי:
שמעון בלומנטאהל, אונגואר י”א תשרי תרל”א לפ”ק
בפנינו עדים:. לוי בלוישטין, יהודה הלוי טויב

I, the undersigned, acknowledge that I received from R’ Reuven Weinstock of Ungvar, 100 gold coins to conduct business with this money, with the equipment I have in the village of Zahan, until Rosh Chodesh Nissan (may it come to us for good). The profit that comes from this principal after deducting all expenses, will belong half to me and half to R’ Reuven the aforementioned. Also if, Heaven forbid, there are any losses, will be divided by the same proportions.

Immediately on the arrival of Rosh Chodesh Nissan (may it come to us for good), I am obligated to return to R’ Reuven the aforementioned, the principal with his share of the profits.

I will not be believed to say I lost [some of the principal], except if confirmed by two trusted witnesses. On the profit I will not be believed, except under oath.

Yet this, we set a condition between us, that if I wish on Rosh Chodesh Nissan (may it come to us for good) to give to R’. Reuven the aforementioned, instead of the principal and also instead of his share of the profits, five measures of spirit [distilled, high purity alcohol], and in that case he would have no [other] claim on me.

All the Torah laws of trusting [the statements of] the owner of this agreement apply, even after its due date.

I received the wage for my f[future] efforts.

Shim’on Blumenthal, Ungvar, Tishrei 21, 5631

[Signed] in our presence, the witnesses: Levi Blaustein, Yehudah Taub, the Levite

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 66:7

ז: אִם הַשָּׁעָה דְּחוּקָה וְאִי-אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לִכְתֹּב ֹשְטַר-עִסְקָא, יְכוֹלִין לְהַתְנוֹת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל בְּעַל פֶּה

If time is pressing and they can not write a business contract, they can make all of these conditions mentioned above verbally.

Qitzur Shulchan Arukh – 66:6

ו: נֹסַח שְׁטָר עִסְקָא:
מוֹדֶה אֲנִי חָתוּם מַטָּה שֶׁקִּבַּלְתִּי לְיָדַי מֵאֵת ר’ רְאוּבֵן הוֹרְוִיץ מֵאוּנְגְּוַאר סַךְ מֵאָה זְהוּבִים אעס”וו בְּתוֹרַת עִסְקָא לַחֲצִי שָׁנָה מִיּוֹם דִּלְמַטָּה, וְהִתְחַיַּבְתִּי אֶת עַצְמִי שֶׁכָּל סְחוֹרָה טוֹבָה שֶׁתְּהֵא נִרְאֵית בְּעֵינַי שֶׁהִיא הַיּוֹתֵר קְרוֹבָה לְהַרְוִיח בָּהּ, מְחֻיָּב אֲנִי לִקְנוֹת בְּעַד סַךְ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, וְהֵם קוֹדְמִין לִמְעוֹתַי. וְכָל הָרֶוַח שֶׁיִּתֵּן ה’ לְיָדַי מֵאוֹתָהּ סְחוֹרָה, יִהְיֶה מֶּחֱצָההָרֶוַח לִי וְהַמֶּחֱצָה לְר’ רְאוּבֵן הַנִּזְכַּר לְעֵיל, וְכֵן חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לְהֶפְסֵד הוּא חֵלֶק כְּחֵלֶק. וּמִיָּד לְאַחַר כְּלוֹת חֲצִי שָׁנָה מִיּוֹם דִּלְמַטָּה אֲנִי מְחֻיָּב לְהַחֲזִיר לְר’ רְאוּבֵן הַנִּזְכַּר לְעֵיל אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וְגַם חֲצִי רֶוַח שֶׁלּוֹ, וְלֹא יְהֵא לִי נֶאֱמָנוּת לוֹמַר הִפְסַדְתִּי אֶלָּא עַל פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים כְּשֵׁרִים, וְעַל הָרֶוַח לֹא אֱהֵא נֶאֱמָן, רַק בִּשְׁבוּעָה. וְאוּלָם תְּנַאי הָיָה בֵּינֵינוּ שֶׁאִם אֶרְצֶה לִתֵּן לוֹ בְּעַד חֵלֶק רֶוַח שֶׁלּוֹ י’ זְהוּבִים, אַזַי אֵין לוֹ עָלַי שׁוּם תְּבִיעָה, כִּי הַמּוֹתָר שַׁיָּךְ לִי לְבַד אֲפִלּוּ יְבֹרַר שֶׁהָיָה הַרְבֵּה רֶוַח, וְכָל דִּין תּוֹרַת נֶאֱמָנוּת לְבַעַל הַשְּׁטָר אַף לְאַחַר זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן. וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא אַחֲזִיר אֶת הַמָּעוֹת הַנִּזְכָּרוֹת לְעֵיל, הֵם בְּיָדִי בְעִסְקָא בָּאֹפֶן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל.
שמעון אייזנשטין, אונגוואר כ”ח שבט תרל”א לפ”ק
בפנינו עדים:. לוי בלוישטין, יהודה הוכברגר

A [sample] text for a business contract:

I, the undersigned, acknowledge that I received from R’ Reuven Hormitz of Ungvar, 100 gold coins under a business agreement for half a year from the date below. I have obligated myself that in any kind of good merchandise that appeals to me, and that looks most likely to profit, I am obligated to buy for the sum mentioned below, and that this [capital] takes precedence over my own money. Any profit which G-d will give to my control from that merchandise, half will be for me, and half for R’ Reuven the aforementioned. And similarly, Heaven forbid, any losses, will be divided in the same parts.

Immediately after the end of the half year from the date given below, I commit to return to R’ Reuven the aforementioned, the principal and also his half of the profits. And I will not be believed to say I lost [the principle], except by the words of two kosher witnesses. On the profit I will not be believed, unless I take an oath.

Nevertheless, we agreed together a condition, that if I want to give him instead of his share of the profits, 10 gold coins, then he will have no [other] claim on me, for the remainder [of the profit] belongs to me only, even if it is determined that there was a lot of profit.

All the Torah laws of trust with regard to [the statements of] the owner of this agreement, even apply after its collection date, and all the time that I do not return the aforementioned money which is in my hand for the agreement in the way already mentioned. I (acknowledge) that I received a wage for my efforts.

Shim’on Eisenstein, Ungvar, Shevat 28, 5631

[Signed] in our presence, the witnesses: Levi Blaustein, Yehudah Hochberger


This text is a straight implementation of se’if 66:3.